Image for post
Image for post
Photo by Geran de Klerk on Unsplash

In a response to RxJS: Avoiding switchMap-Related Bugs, Martin Hochel mentioned a classic use case for switchMap. For the use case to which he referred, switchMap is not only valid; it’s optimal. And it’s worth looking at why.

Dealing with stale results

Let’s look at an example that involves an expensive call to a backend service: a search for addresses that match a partial address typed into an HTML input.

Here’s the NgRx effect:

And here’s the redux-observable epic:

The effect/epic debounces the user input so that backend searches are not performed for each keystroke and uses distinctUntilChanged so that no searches are performed unless the partial address has changed. The operator that’s then used to flatten the backend observable is switchMap.


From the summarised recommendations in RxJS: Avoiding switchMap-Related Bugs, we know that:

  • concatMap could be used as a conservative choice;
  • mergeMap should not be used — the ordering of the results is important;
  • switchMap could be used — when a new search is made, pending results are no longer needed; and
  • exhaustMap should not be used — searches for new, partial addresses should not be ignored.

So how would the behaviour differ if the effect/epic were to use the conservative choice of concatMap rather than switchMap?

Whether or not the behaviour differs depends upon two things:

  • the time it takes for the backend searches to be fulfilled; and
  • the time between the user’s keystrokes.

The debounceTime operator imposes a limit on how frequently backend searches can occur, so unless the fulfilment of a search takes longer than the debounce time, there will be no difference in behaviour between flattening with concatMap and with switchMap — regardless of how slowly the user types.

Similarly, there will be no difference in behaviour if the user types so slowly that each search is fulfilled before the next keystroke occurs.

Let’s look at the worst-case scenario: the searches take significantly longer than the debounce time to be fulfilled and the user types slowly, with intervals between keystrokes that slightly exceed the debounce time.

In the worst-case scenario, if concatMap is used, each keystroke effects a search and the results of that search will still be pending when the next key is pressed — so the next search will be queued. This sees the displayed search results become increasingly out-of-sync with the typed-in partial address and, as each of the searches has to be fulfilled before the next is performed, it might take some time for the displayed results to become consistent with the input.

With switchMap, each keystroke still effects a search, but any pending search will be aborted. So, in the worst-case scenario, the displayed search results will become consistent with the input more quickly than if concatMap were to be used, as they’ll be consistent as soon as the pending search is fulfilled.


When choosing a flattening operator for an effect/epic, if subsequent actions of the same type will render pending results stale, switchMap is unequivocally the best choice.

This post is also published on my personal blog:

RxJS core team member; front-end developer; mentor; speaker; open-source contributor

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store